Keeping in view the ever growing importance of Research in Life sciences, this book has been prepared to help JRF-NET aspirants. Life sciences is a vast field that includes fields of botany, zoology, biochemistry, biotechnology, bioinformatics, microbiology, pharmacy, medicine and other fields related to biosciences. The syllabus prescribed by CSIR-UGC for Life Sciences is too vast and there is a dearth of a complete quality book for the same in the market. A sincere and nascent attempt has been made in this direction to fulfill the gap and enable the JRF-NET aspirants to achieve their target of clearing the prestigious CSIR-UGC exam. Further this book will also cater to the need of students preparing for other competitive exams such as ICAR, ICMR, GATE, TIFR, DBT, IISc, JNU, DU, BHU, Indian civil services, Indian Forest services, Provincial Civil Services etc. Although the book is designed keeping in mind the CSIR- UGC syllabus for Life Sciences, however the undergraduate and post graduate students of various universities across the country will also find this book useful.
The book is simple and has been designed as per the latest syllabus. For the ease of understanding the entire book is organized in 13 chapters within IV volumes. This book, the volume III of the series concentrates on the 7th, 9th and 10th unit of the syllabus. An honest effort has been made to cover and provide updated information in all the sections and sub sections under each unit so as to enrich the knowledge and understanding of the students in related topics. The matter in this volume will well equip the student to face any kind of question with greater confidence in part B as well as part C of the question paper
SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY – ANIMAL (UNIT-7)
- A. Blood and circulation : Blood corpuscles, haemopoiesis and formed elements, plasma function, blood volume, blood volume regulation, blood groups, haemoglobin, immunity, haemostasis
- B. Cardiovascular System: Comparative anatomy of heart structure, myogenic heart, specialized tissue, ECG – its principle and significance, cardiac cycle, heart as a pump, blood pressure, neural and chemical regulation of all above.
- C. Respiratory system: Comparison of respiration in different species, anatomical considerations, transport of gases, exchange of gases, waste elimination, neural and chemical regulation of respiration.
- D. Nervous system: - Neurons, action potential, gross neuroanatomy of the brain and spinal 35 - 60 cord, central and peripheral nervous system, neural control of muscle tone and posture.
- E. Sense organs : Vision, hearing and tactile response.
- F. Excretory system : Comparative physiology of excretion, kidney, urine formation, urine concentration, waste elimination, micturition, regulation of water balance, blood volume, blood pressure, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance.
- G. Thermoregulation : Comfort zone, body temperature – physical, chemical, neural regulation, acclimatization.
- H. Stress and adaptation :
- I. Digestive system : Digestion, absorption, energy balance, BMR.
- J. Endocrinology and reproduction : Endocrine glands, basic mechanism of hormone action, hormones and diseases; reproductive processes, gametogenesis, ovulation, neuroendocrine regulation
DIVERSITY OF LIFE FORMS (UNIT-9)
- A. Principles & methods of taxonomy: Concepts of species and hierarchical taxa, biological nomenclature, classical & quantitative methods of taxonomy of plants, animals and microorganisms.
- B. Levels of structural organization : Unicellular, colonial and multicellular forms. Levels of organization of tissues, organs & systems. Comparative anatomy, adaptive radiation, adaptive modifications.
- C. Outline classification of plants, animals & microorganisms : Important criteria used for classification in each taxon. Classification of plants, animals and microorganisms. Evolutionary relationships among taxa.
- D. Natural history of Indian subcontinent : Major habitat types of the subcontinent, geographic origins and migrations of species. Common Indian mammals, birds. Seasonality and phenology of the subcontinent
- E. Organisms of health & agricultural importance : Common parasites and pathogens of humans, domestic animals and crops.
ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES (UNIT-10)
- A. The Environment : Physical environment; biotic environment; biotic and abiotic interactions.
- B. Habitat and Niche : Concept of habitat and niche; niche width and overlap; fundamental and realized niche; resource partitioning; character displacement.
- C. Population Ecology : Characteristics of a population; population growth curves; population regulation; life history strategies (r and K selection); concept of metapopulation – demes and dispersal, interdemic extinctions, age structured populations.
- D. Species Interactions : Types of interactions, interspecific competition, herbivory, carnivory, pollination, symbiosis.
- E. Community Ecology : Nature of communities; community structure and attributes; levels of species diversity and its measurement; edges and ecotones.
- F. Ecological Succession : Types; mechanisms; changes involved in succession; concept of climax.
- G. Ecosystem Ecology : Ecosystem structure; ecosystem function; energy flow and mineral cycling (C,N,P); primary production and decomposition; structure and function of some Indian ecosystems: terrestrial (forest, grassland) and aquatic (fresh water, marine, estuarine).
- H. Biogeography : Major terrestrial biomes; theory of island biogeography; biogeographical zones of India.
- I. Applied Ecology : Environmental pollution; global environmental change; biodiversity: status, monitoring and documentation; major drivers of biodiversity change; biodiversity management approaches.
- J. Conservation Biology : Principles of conservation, major approaches to management, Indian case studies on conservation/management strategy (Project Tiger, Biosphere reserves).