Keeping in view the ever growing importance of Research in Life sciences, this book has been prepared to help JRF-NET aspirants. Life sciences is a vast field that includes fields of botany, zoology, biochemistry, biotechnology, bioinformatics, microbiology, pharmacy, medicine and other fields related to biosciences. The syllabus prescribed by CSIR-UGC for Life Sciences is too vast and there is a dearth of a complete quality book for the same in the market. A sincere and nascent attempt has been made in this direction to fulfill the gap and enable the JRF-NET aspirants to achieve their target of clearing the prestigious CSIR-UGC exam.
Further this book will also cater to the need of students preparing for other competitive exams such as ICAR, ICMR, GATE, TIFR, DBT, IISc, JNU, DU, BHU, Indian civil services, Indian Forest services, Provincial Civil Services etc. Although the book is designed keeping in mind the CSIR- UGC syllabus for Life Sciences, however the undergraduate and post graduate students of various universities across the country will also find this book useful.
The book is simple and has been designed as per the latest syllabus. For the ease of understanding the book is organized in 13 chapters within IV volumes. This book, the volume II of the series concentrates on the 4th, 5th, 6th and 8th units of the syllabus. An honest effort has been made to cover and provide updated information in all the sections and sub sections under each unit so as to enrich the knowledge and understanding of the students in related topics. The matter in this volume will well equip the student to face any kind of question with greater confidence in part B as well as part C of the question paper.
CELL COMMUNICATION AND SIGNALLING (UNIT-4)
- A- Host parasite interaction: Recognition and entry processes of different pathogens likebacteria, viruses into animal and plant host cells, alteration of host cell behavior by pathogens,virus-induced cell transformation, pathogen-induced diseases in animals and plants, cell-cell fusion in both normal and abnormal cells.
- B- Cell Signaling: Hormones and their receptors, cell surface receptor, signaling through G-protein coupled receptors, signal transduction pathways, second messengers, regulation of signaling pathways, bacterial and plant two-component systems, light signaling inplants,bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing.
- C- Cellular communication: Regulation of hematopoiesis, general principles of cell communication, cell adhesion and roles of different adhesion molecules, gap junctions, extracellular matrix, integrins, neurotransmission and its regulation.
- D- Cancer: Genetic rearrangements in progenitor cells, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, cancer and the cell cycle, virus-induced cancer, metastasis, interaction of cancer cells with normal cells, apoptosis, therapeutic interventions of uncontrolled cell growth.
- E- Innate and adaptive immune system: Cells and molecules involved in innate and adaptive immunity, antigens, antigenicity and immunogenicity. B and T cell epitopes, structure and function of antibody molecules. generation of antibody diversity, monoclonal antibodies, antibody engineering, antigen-antibody interactions, MHC molecules, antigen processing and presentation, activation and differentiation of B and T cells, B and T cell receptors, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, primary and secondary immune modulation, the complement system, Toll-like receptors, cell-mediated effector functions, inflammation, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity, immune response during bacterial (tuberculosis), parasitic (malaria) and viral (HIV) infections, congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies, vaccines.
DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY (UNIT-5)
- A- Basic concepts of development: Potency, commitment, specification, induction, competence, determination and differentiation; morphogenetic gradients; cell fate and cell lineages; stem cells; genomic equivalence and the cytoplasmic determinants; imprinting; mutants and transgenics in analysis of development
- B- Gametogenesis, fertilization and early development: Production of gametes, cell surface molecules in sperm-egg recognition in animals; embryo sac development and double fertilization in plants; zygote formation, cleavage, blastula formation, embryonic fields, gastrulation and formation of germ layers in animals; embryogenesis, establishment of symmetry in plants; seed formation and germination.
- C- Morphogenesis and organogenesis in animals: Cell aggregation and differentiation in Dictyostelium; axes and pattern formation in Drosophila, amphibia and chick; organogenesisvulva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans, eye lens induction, limb development and regeneration in vertebrates; differentiation of neurons, post embryonic development- larval formation, metamorphosis; environmental regulation of normal development; sex determination.
- D- Morphogenesis and organogenesis in plants: Organization of shoot and root apical meristem; shoot and root development; leaf development and phyllotaxy; transition to flowering, floral meristems and floral development in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum
- E- Programmed cell death, aging and senescence:
SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY - PLANT (UNIT-6)
- A- Photosynthesis: Light harvesting complexes; mechanisms of electron transport; photoprotective mechanisms; CO2 fixation-C3, C4 and CAM pathways.
- B- Respiration and photorespiration: Citric acid cycle; plant mitochondrial electron transport and ATP synthesis; alternate oxidase; photorespiratory pathway.
- C- Nitrogen metabolism: Nitrate and ammonium assimilation; amino acid biosynthesis.
- D- Plant hormones: Biosynthesis, storage, breakdown and transport; physiological effects and mechanisms of action.
- E- Sensory photobiology: Structure, function and mechanisms of action of phytochromes, cryptochromes and phototropins; stomatal movement; photoperiodism and biological clocks.
- F- Solute transport and photoassimilate translocation: uptake, transport and translocation of water, ions, solutes and macromolecules from soil, through cells, across membranes, through xylem and phloem; transpiration; mechanisms of loading and unloading of photoassimilates.
- G- Secondary metabolites: Biosynthesis of terpenes, phenols and nitrogenous compounds and their roles.
- H- Stress physiology: Responses of plants to biotic (pathogen and insects) and abiotic(water, temperature and salt) stresses.
INHERITANCE BIOLOGY (UNIT-8)
- A- Mendelian principles: Dominance, segregation, independent assortment.
- B- Concept of gene: Allele, multiple alleles, pseudoallele, complementation tests
- C- Extensions of Mendelian principles: Codominance, incomplete dominance, gene interactions, pleiotropy, genomic imprinting, penetrance and expressivity, phenocopy, linkage and crossing over, sex linkage, sex limited and sex influenced characters.
- D- Gene mapping methods: Linkage maps, tetrad analysis, mapping with molecular markers, mapping by using somatic cell hybrids, development of mapping population in plants.
- E- Extra chromosomal inheritance: Inheritance of Mitochondrial and chloroplast genes, maternal inheritance.
- F- Microbial genetics: Methods of genetic transfers – transformation, conjugation, transduction and sex-duction, mapping genes by interrupted mating, fine structure analysis of genes.
- G- Human genetics: Pedigree analysis, lod score for linkage testing, karyotypes,genetic disorders.
- H- Quantitative genetics: Polygenic inheritance, heritability and its measurements,QTL mapping.
- I- Mutation: Types, causes and detection, mutant types – lethal, conditional, biochemical, loss of function, gain of function, germinal verses somatic mutants, insertional mutagenesis.
- J- Structural and numerical alterations of chromosomes: Deletion, duplication,inversion, translocation, ploidy and their genetic implications.
- K- Recombination: Homologous and non-homologous recombination including transposition.